“Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XXII – “Term Limits for the Presidency”

Color portrait of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who had been elected president four times from 1932 to 1944. (Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library & Museum) Amendment Twenty-two to the Constitution was ratified on February 27, 1951. It establishes term limits on those elected president, and outlines an accompanying series of stipulations regarding the eligibility of … Continue reading “Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XXII – “Term Limits for the Presidency”

“Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XXI – “Repeal of Prohibition”

Bar patrons in New York City celebrate the Twenty-first Amendment's passage and the subsequent conclusion of the Prohibition Era, 1933. (Getty Images) Amendment Twenty-one to the Constitution was ratified on December 5, 1933. It repealed the previous Eighteenth Amendment which had established a nationwide ban on the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcohol. The official … Continue reading “Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XXI – “Repeal of Prohibition”

“Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XX – “Date Changes for Presidency, Congress, and Succession”

Portrait of Senator George Norris, the author of the first resolution that ultimately created the Twentieth Amendment, c. 1910. (Public Domain) Amendment Twenty to the Constitution was ratified on January 23, 1933. It changed the original calendar dates for the president and vice president’s terms from March 4 to January 20. For those in Congress, … Continue reading “Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XX – “Date Changes for Presidency, Congress, and Succession”

“Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XIX – “Votes for Men and Women”

Alice Paul and other suffragettes sewing stars onto the flag of the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, c. 1920. (Library of Congress) Amendment 19 to the Constitution was ratified on August 18, 1920. It prohibits all levels of government in the United States from restricting the right to vote based on sex, which in so … Continue reading “Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XIX – “Votes for Men and Women”

“Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XVIII – “The Beginning of Prohibition”

Archived copy of "The New York Times" reporting on the states voting for the Nineteenth Amendment, prompting its formal ratification, 1919. (Public Domain) Amendment Eighteen to the Constitution was ratified on January 16, 1919. Its legal provisions brought about the Prohibition Era of the United States. The official text is written as such: After one … Continue reading “Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XVIII – “The Beginning of Prohibition”

“Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XVII – “Direct Election of Senators”

Detail of "Puck" cartoon satirizing wealthy figures using their money and influence to take Senatorial positions in Congress, 1890. (Public Domain) Amendment Seventeen to the Constitution was ratified on April 8, 1913. It overrides the previous Constitution’s provisions on the election of senators, changing it so that they are elected directly by the voting public … Continue reading “Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XVII – “Direct Election of Senators”

“Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XVI – “Income Taxes”

"Puck" political cartoon satirizing Theodore Roosevelt passing his presidential policies to William Howard Taft. As the next president, Taft would continue to advance Roosevelt's progressive angle to political decision making, including income taxes and the future Sixteenth Amendment, 1909. (Public Domain) Amendment Sixteen to the Constitution was ratified on February 3, 1913. It grants Congress … Continue reading “Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XVI – “Income Taxes”

“Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XV – “The Right to Vote”

"The Fifteenth Amendment" print by Thomas Kelly commemorating its passage in 1870. (Library of Congress) Amendment Fifteen to the Constitution - the last of the Reconstruction Amendments - was ratified on February 3, 1870. It grants the right to vote for all male citizens regardless of their ethnicity or prior slave status. The official text … Continue reading “Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XV – “The Right to Vote”

“Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XIV – “Citizenship, Equal Protection, Apportionment, and War Debts”

E.W. Kemble political cartoon satirizing Congress being inactive in enforcing Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment, c. 1902. (Library of Congress) Amendment Fourteen to the Constitution - the second of the three Reconstruction Amendments - was ratified on July 9, 1868. It grants citizenship to all people born in the United States, provides them equal … Continue reading “Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XIV – “Citizenship, Equal Protection, Apportionment, and War Debts”

“Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XIII – “The Abolition of Slavery”

Illustration celebrating the emancipation of African Americans with the Thirteenth Amendment, c. 1865 (Library of Congress) Amendment Thirteen to the Constitution - the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments - was ratified on December 6, 1865. It forbids chattel slavery across the United States and in every territory under its control, except as a criminal … Continue reading “Constitutional Amendments” Series – Amendment XIII – “The Abolition of Slavery”